And at the center of the action, caught in the confrontation week after week, two proud champions of their respective nations. It is Lord John Maynard Keynes of Bloomsbury and the United Kingdom, the world`s greatest economist (even if he is probably the worst president in the world) against Harry Dexter White, who leads for Uncle Sam, both aspire to provide the Bretton Woods agreement, an essential architecture of a new world economic order. 730 delegates from the 44 Allied nations were preparing to rebuild the international economic system while World War II was still raging, and gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, also known as the Bretton Woods Conference. Delegates debated from 1 to 22 July 1944 and signed the Bretton Woods Agreement on its final day. The creation of a system of rules, institutions, and procedures for regulating the international monetary system created the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), now part of the World Bank Group. The United States, which controlled two-thirds of the world`s gold, insisted that the Bretton Woods system be based on both gold and the U.S. dollar. Soviet representatives attended the conference, but later refused to ratify the final agreements and lamented that the institutions they created were “branches of Wall Street.”  These organizations began their work in 1945, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified the agreement. In the Final Act, the most important part in the eyes of the conference participants and for the subsequent functioning of the world economy was the IMF agreement. Its main features were: as chief international economist at the U.S.
Treasury in 1942-44, Harry Dexter White designed the United States. International liquidity access plan, which competed with Keynes` plan for the British Treasury. Overall, White`s scheme tended to favour incentives to bring price stability to global economies, while Keynes wanted a system that promoted economic growth. The “collective agreement was a huge international undertaking” for which it was prepared two years before the conference. These were numerous bilateral and multilateral meetings to find common ground on the policy of the Bretton Woods system. Powerful nations largely agreed that the lack of exchange rate coordination in the interwar period had exacerbated political tensions. This facilitated the decisions of the Bretton Woods conference. Moreover, all the Bretton Woods participating Governments agreed that the monetary chaos of the interwar period had brought several valuable lessons. The United States launched the European Economic Recovery Plan (Marshall Plan) to provide significant financial and economic assistance for the reconstruction of Europe, mainly through grants, not loans. Countries that are part of the Soviet bloc, for example. B Poland, were invited to receive the subsidies, but obtained a favourable agreement with the COMECON of the Soviet Union.  In a speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947, U.S.
Secretary of State George Marshall stated that post-war global capitalism suffered from a huge shortage of dollars. The U.S. had huge trade surpluses, and U.S. reserves were huge and growing. It was necessary to reverse this river. Although all nations wanted to buy American exports, the dollars had to leave the United States and be available for international use so that they could do so. In other words, the United States should reverse imbalances in global prosperity by presenting a trade deficit financed by U.S. exits. . . .